Added: Krysteena Morado - Date: 07.05.2022 03:27 - Views: 37337 - Clicks: 7488
Pool monkey sex order to assess the environmental enrichment value of a small swimming pool for captive juvenile rhesus macaques Macaca. When the pool was available there was less social grooming and cage manipulation, and more play. Most of the monkeys engaged in diving and underwater swimming. The presence of pieces of banana at the bottom of the pool reduced these water-related activities, whereas when raisins were spread along the bottom or when there was no food in the water, there was more diving and less aggression. Certain effects tended to vary with dominance status, but individual differences appeared more important than social status in determining reactions to the water.
The provision of a small swimming pool for captive macaques is an effective contribution to improving their welfare. Keywords: aggression, animal welfare, dominance, environmental enrichment, play, rhesus macaques, swimming. Swimming has been reported to occur in wild populations of many species of Old World monkeys e.
Usually, swimming is functional, e. However, recreational swimming has been described in certain free-ranging populations of macaques Kawai ; Lindburg ; Berman Some zoos and wildlife parks provide facilities to encourage swimming in macaques e.
In the study by Anderson et alout of a group of 17 juvenile female rhesus macaques, 15 were observed to repeatedly dive into a small swimming pool and engage in underwater swimming. As well as appearing to enjoy entering the water, the monkeys also seemed to engage in more overall play when the pool was available, but quantitative observations were not conducted on this aspect. Thus, until now there exist no formal data on the apparent enrichment effects of the availability of a swimming pool for captive monkeys. An appropriate analysis would involve the comparison of behaviour in the presence and the absence of the pool, with each animal serving as its own control Poole In the present study, we assessed the effects of the presence of a small swimming pool on the social and individual behaviours of the group of juvenile rhesus macaques studied by Anderson et al If the emergence of play is facilitated by low-stress environments Pool monkey sex ; Baldwinand if play increases when the pool is available, then the enrichment value of the pool would become clearer.
In order to extend assessment of the pool as an enrichment, we included four different pool conditions: one in which there was no food in the water, and three in which food was present. Since we had ly found that the presence of a submerged box containing food led to some social tension in the group, it was predicted that the absence of food-related competition in the no-food condition would result in less aggression and more diving and underwater swimming than the pool-plus-food conditions.
All observations took place in the outdoor cage 7x3x3m. Food commercial primate pellets and water were available ad libitum in the indoor area, and fresh fruit and vegetables were provided once or twice weekly. The 'swimming pool' was an 8mm. Sixteen days Pool monkey sex testing were conducted over a three week period in Septemberwhen daytime temperatures were judged to be sufficiently high to encourage swimming.
Due to weather constraints i. The four conditions were chosen to give preliminary information regarding the possible effects of visibility of the submerged food bananas and of the presence of food that could only be harvested while swimming along the bottom of the pool raisins.
In the 'box' condition, at the start of the test an opaque PVC box containing eight pieces of banana was fixed to the bottom of the pool. The box could be opened by pivoting the lid horizontally. Two members of the group had ly learned to dive into the pool and open the box under water, thereby releasing the bananas Anderson et al In the 'tubes' condition, instead of the box, two rows of four PVC tubes diameter 2. Thus, unlike in the box condition, in the tubes condition the banana pieces were visible from the start of the test. In the 'raisins' condition, neither the box nor the tubes were present, but 50 raisins were spread along the floor of the pool before the test.
Unlike in the pool tests with bananas, in the raisins condition food could only be obtained by collecting the raisins from the bottom of the pool; unlike bananas, the raisins did not float, and they could not easily be Pool monkey sex from a subordinate by a more dominant subject after the former emerged from the pool. In the 9 no-food' condition, the pool contained only water.
Pool monkey sex order of testing was the same as that used to describe Pool monkey sex conditions, with one control day following every pool day. Each day's testing consisted of four one hour tests; two in the morning and two in the afternoon. Before every pool test the subjects were confined to the indoor cage section while the pool was prepared, which took about 20 minutes, then released immediately before behavioural sampling.
On control days the subjects were also confined indoors for about 20 minutes before each test. During pool days, the second observer recorded the identity of all subjects engaging in any of the following water-related behaviours: swimming on the surface of the water; immersed three limbs in the water, one limb holding on to the edge of the pool ; head under water, and diving resulting in the subject being fully submerged and usually followed by underwater swimming.
The data from each day's four one hour tests were pooled. Those behaviours yielding sufficient data were analysed using within- and between-subjects analyses of variance, using social status dominant, intermediate, subordinate as the between-subjects factor and different combinations of conditions control, pool, no-food, box, tubes, raisins as repeated measures. Alpha was set at 0.
All ificant effects are reported below, as are some notable nonificant trends 0. There were no ificant effects involving dominance status, although the dominant. Subgroup consistently had the highest average grooming scores, and the subordinates the lowest. However, grooming activity was not affected differentially by the four pool conditions. Neither self-directed grooming nor passive social contact was influenced by any of the independent variables. There were several ificant effects in the analyses of agonistic behaviour. This trend led us to analyse total aggression scores in the four different pool conditions.
The only ificant effect was due to condition, with mean aggression scores decreasing in the following order of conditions: tubes 0. The frequency of social play did not vary according to the presence or absence of the pool. In contrast to social play, solitary i.
The corresponding means are shown in Figure 1. Several aspects of the data are noteworthy. The intermediate ranking subgroup engaged in most of the pool-related activities, especially in the raisins and no-food conditions. Subjects in the subordinate subgroup showed relatively little water-related activity in the three conditions in which food was present, but approximately doubled their water-related scores in the no-food condition.
In contrast, dominant subjects showed almost no interest in the water when it contained no food. The presence of food, especially raisins, increased the dominants' overall interest in the pool. The behaviour 'head under water' yielded no ificant effects, either when all instances Pool monkey sex analysed together or when different contexts of the behaviour - i. Simple immersion in the water and swimming on the surface were generally rare, and did not vary according to social status or conditions. By far the most frequently recorded water-related activity was diving, typically associated with underwater swimming.
Pool monkey sex diving in the no-food. There were no main effects or interactions involving dominance status in any of the analyses of diving activity. Interestingly, however, all subjects in the dominant subgroup who dived did so most frequently in the raisins condition, whereas eight out of 10 divers in the intermediate and subordinate subgroups dived more frequently in the no-food condition.
Any potential effects of social status at the group level appeared to be swamped by substantial individual differences in proclivity for diving. For example, the total individual frequency of diving, summed over all pool tests, ranged from 0 3 subjects, 1 in each group to an intermediate ranking subject. Figure 2 illustrates diving in the box condition. The of this brief study further indicate that provision of a small swimming pool for juvenile rhesus macaques increases play activities and induces recreational diving and underwater swimming, while reducing cage manipulation and the overall incidence of social grooming.
As the monkeys were already highly familiar with the pool see Anderson et alnovelty can be discounted as an important cause of the behavioural changes observed, although more extensive observations in the different experimental conditions would be desirable. Nevertheless, the present taken with on the same group indicate that a swimming pool is a useful environmental enrichment feature for captive macaques. Further data should be collected on the enrichment value of a pool for other species and other age-sex classes.
Aggression was very rare under the conditions of the present study, but its frequency of occurrence was affected by different presentations of food incentives in the water. Overall water-related activities, especially diving and underwater swimming, were also affected by the food presented along with the pool. Both social rank dominance subgroup membership and especially individual differences, influenced use of the pool. These points are discussed below. In the pool condition of the present study, some bouts of social play occurred in relation to the water; for example, one monkey would leap out of the water on to the ground beside the pool and immediately be contacted playfully by another.
Solitary play activities, which increased by a factor of 10 in the presence of the pool, were also frequently water-related. For example, a subject would leap out of the water and grab on to a swing or an elevated horizontal tree-trunk and engage in acrobatics. It was also performed frequently by two or more subjects in close proximity, i. Regardless of the mechanisms involved, the increase in play accompanied by reduced manipulation of the familiar cage structures implies that the swimming pool was an effective enrichment apparatus.
Although agonistic behaviour was infrequent, it was more often observed when highly prized food items - pieces of banana - were present in the water, especially if they were clearly visible tubes tests. Aggression was even less frequent when no food was present or when raisins were the food on offer. Interestingly, diving was also more frequent in the raisins and the no-food tests than in the box and tubes tests, in which banana pieces could be obtained. This was especially true for non-dominant subjects.
Together, these reflect the greater social tension Pool monkey sex by baiting the pool with bananas. In these tests, lower-ranking subjects were more hesitant about entering the water as long as some banana pieces remained uneaten, lest they be punished by a more dominant subject. In fact, the alpha-ranking female of the group never entered the water, but obtained a disproportionate amount of the banana pieces by waiting for them to float to the surface after they had been disturbed by another individual see Anderson et al ; her monopolization of the released food was sometimes backed up by threats directed towards others who came too near.
In this context, it is noteworthy that the raisins condition did not appear to create much tension. This may be because raisins are less highly prized than bananas, but it may also be related to the fact that diving subjects often picked up the raisins and transferred them to their mouth while still swimming under water; thus the dominants could not chase them and force them to abandon the food when they emerged from the water, a scenario which did occur often with the bananas.
These are preliminary, but they suggest that visibility of submerged food and the ease with which a food item might be stolen can influence diving activities in a group of monkeys. There were few effects of dominance subgroup membership on water-related activities, but, as noted above, lower ranking subjects tended to engage in more diving when there were no food incentives in the water.
Overall, individual differences in taking to the water appeared more influential than dominance-related effects. Certain individuals never entered the water during the present study, while others literally took the plunge in almost every test.
In particular, incorporating food into a spatially restricted enrichment apparatus may increase the potential for conflict, and compromise access for certain subjects. When a small swimming pool was available, the members of a group of young rhesus monkeys engaged in less social grooming and cage manipulation, and more play activities. Most researchers would agree that such behavioural changes are positive for captive macaques. Pool monkey sex of the monkeys engaged in diving and recreational underwater swimming. Of the different food conditions used, spreading raisins on the bottom of the pool appeared the most successful for eliciting diving without increasing aggression.
Individual differences, food presentation, and possibly social status interacted to influence access to and use of the swimming pool, which appears to be an excellent form of environmental enrichment for captive rhesus macaques. We thank personnel of the Centre for their help, and M Anthouard for providing and maintaining the aquarium.
Laboratory Primate Newsletter 31 4 : Anderson J R and Visalberghi E Towards better conditions for captive nonhuman primates: routines, requirements, and research. Baldwin J D Behavior in infancy: exploration and play. Alan R Liss: New York. Zoo Biology 5: Byrne G D and Suomi S J Effects of woodchips and buried food on behavior patterns and psychological well-being of captive rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology Journal of the Institute of Animal Technicians Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York.
Gautier-Hion A Social and ecological features of talapoin monkey - comparisons with sympatric cercopithecines. Academic Press: New York. Gilbert S G and Wrenshall E Environmental enrichment for monkeys used in behavioral toxicology studies. Hamilton W J Baboon sleeping site preferences and relationships to primate grouping patterns. American Journal of Primatology 3: Kawai M Newly-acquired pre-cultural Pool monkey sex of the natural troop of Japanese monkeys on Koshima Islet. Primates 6: Lindburg D G The rhesus monkey in north India: an ecological and behavioral study.
Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Parks K A and Novak M A Observations of increased activity and tool use in captive rhesus monkeys exposed to troughs of water. Poole T B Normal and abnormal behaviour in captive primates.
Primate Report Suomi S and Novak M A The role of individual differences in promoting psychological well- being in rhesus monkeys. Animal Behaviour Yeager C P Possible antipredator behavior associated with river crossings by proboscis monkeys Nasalis larvatus. Zumpe D and Michael R P Dominance index: a simple measure of relative dominance status in primates. This article originally appeared in Animal Welfare 3 : Reprinted with permission of the publisher. Keywords: aggression, animal welfare, dominance, environmental enrichment, play, rhesus macaques, swimming Introduction Swimming has been reported to occur in wild populations of many species of Old World monkeys e.Pool monkey sex
email: [email protected] - phone:(882) 480-8459 x 3607
Pool monkey sex